C lng

C એ સામાન્ય હેતુ તેમજ સીસ્ટમ પ્રોગ્રામિંગ માટે વપરતી પ્રોગ્રામિંગ ભાષા છે. જેની રચના ૧૯૬૯ થી ૧૯૭૩ વચ્ચે ડેનીસ રીચી દ્વારા AT&T Bell Lab માં થઇ આવી હતી. એ સમયે તેનો મુખ્ય ઉદેશ્ય Unix ઓપરેટીંગ સિસ્ટમ ને C મા ફરી થી લખવા નો હતો. આ ભાષાની ડિઝાઈનની સૂચનાઓનું મશીનની સૂચનાઓમાં સરળ રીતે રૂપાંતર થાય છે. ઘણી ભાષાઓ C માંથી વિકસાવવામાં આવેલી છે જેમકે C++, C શાર્પ (C#), PHP, પાયથોન, જાવા, જાવાસ્ક્રિપ્ટ વગેરે.

Quick facts: પ્રોગ્રામિંગ પેરાડિગમ, શરૂઆત …

પ્રોગ્રામિંગ પેરાડિગમ કાર્યપ્રણાલીસ્ટ્રક્ચર્ડ
શરૂઆત ૧૯૭૨
બનાવનાર ડેનિસ રિચી
ડેવલપર ડેનિસ રિચી અને બેલ પ્રયોગશાળા; ANSI X3J11 (ANSI C);ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG14 (ISO C)
સ્થિર પ્રકાશન C11
પ્રકાર સ્ટેટિકડાયનેમિક
પ્રોગ્રામીંગ ભાષાઓનું અમલીકરણ ઇન્ટેલ CGCCવેટકોમMSVC
વિવિધ બોલીઓમાં સ્પ્લીટ Cસાઇસ્લોનC*યુનિફાઇડ પેરેલ્લ પ્રોગ્રામિંગ
દ્વારા પ્રભાવિત BALGOL 68ફોરટ્રેન PL/I
પ્રભાવિત C++C#ઑબ્જેક્ટિવ C DPHP
કોમ્પ્યુટીંગ પ્લેટફોર્મ ક્રોસ પ્લેટફોર્મ
સામાન્ય ફાઈલ એક્સટેન્શન .h .c


MySQL Introduction

What is Database?

A database is a separate application that stores a collection of data. Each database has one or more distinct APIs for creating, accessing, managing, searching and replicating the data it holds.

Other kinds of data stores can be used, such as files on the file system or large hash tables in memory but data fetching and writing would not be so fast and easy with those types of systems.

So nowadays, we use relational database management systems (RDBMS) to store and manage huge volume of data. This is called relational database because all the data is stored into different tables and relations are established using primary keys or other keys known as foreign keys.

Relational DataBase Management System (RDBMS) is a software that:

·        Enables you to implement a database with tables, columns and indexes.

·        Guarantees the Referential Integrity between rows of various tables.

·        Updates the indexes automatically.

·        Interprets an SQL query and combines information from various tables.

RDBMS Terminology:

Before we proceed to explain MySQL database system, let’s revise few definitions related to database.

·        Database: A database is a collection of tables, with related data.

·        Table: A table is a matrix with data. A table in a database looks like a simple spreadsheet.

·        Column: One column (data element) contains data of one and the same kind, for example the column postcode.

·        Row: A row (= tuple, entry or record) is a group of related data, for example the data of one subscription.

·        Redundancy: Storing data twice, redundantly to make the system faster.

·        Primary Key: A primary key is unique. A key value can not occur twice in one table. With a key, you can find at most one row.

·        Foreign Key: A foreign key is the linking pin between two tables.

·        Compound Key: A compound key (composite key) is a key that consists of multiple columns, because one column is not sufficiently unique.

·        Index: An index in a database resembles an index at the back of a book.

·        Referential Integrity: Referential Integrity makes sure that a foreign key value always points to an existing row.

MySQL Database:

MySQL is a fast, easy-to-use RDBMS being used for many small and big businesses. MySQL is developed, marketed, and supported by MySQL AB, which is a Swedish company. MySQL is becoming so popular because of many good reasons:

·        MySQL is released under an open-source license. So you have nothing to pay to use it.

·        MySQL is a very powerful program in its own right. It handles a large subset of the functionality of the most expensive and powerful database packages.

·        MySQL uses a standard form of the well-known SQL data language.

·        MySQL works on many operating systems and with many languages including PHP, PERL, C, C++, JAVA, etc.

·        MySQL works very quickly and works well even with large data sets.

·        MySQL is very friendly to PHP, the most appreciated language for web development.

·        MySQL supports large databases, up to 50 million rows or more in a table. The default file size limit for a table is 4GB, but you can increase this (if your operating system can handle it) to a theoretical limit of 8 million terabytes (TB).

·        MySQL is customizable. The open-source GPL license allows programmers to modify the MySQL software to fit their own specific environments.

Before You Begin:

Before you begin this tutorial, you should have a basic knowledge of the information covered in our PHP and HTML tutorials.

This tutorial focuses heavily on using MySQL in a PHP environment. Many examples given in this tutorial will be useful for PHP Programmers.

We recommend you check our PHP Tutorial for your reference.



Android Overview

What is Android?

Android is an open source and Linux-basedOperating System for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Android was developed by the Open Handset Alliance, led by Google, and other companies.

Android offers a unified approach to application development for mobile devices which means developers need only develop for Android, and their applications should be able to run on different devices powered by Android.

The first beta version of the Android Software Development Kit (SDK) was released by Google in 2007 where as the first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008.

On June 27, 2012, at the Google I/O conference, Google announced the next Android version, 4.1 Jelly Bean. Jelly Bean is an incremental update, with the primary aim of improving the user interface, both in terms of functionality and performance.

The source code for Android is available under free and open source software licenses. Google publishes most of the code under the Apache License version 2.0 and the rest, Linux kernel changes, under the GNU General Public License version 2.

Features of Android

Android is a powerful operating system competing with Apple 4GS and supports great features. Few of them are listed below:



Beautiful UI

Android OS basic screen provides a beautiful and intuitive user interface.


GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE, NFC and WiMAX.


SQLite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purposes.

Media support

H.263, H.264, MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, AAC, HE-AAC, AAC 5.1, MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, and BMP



Web browser

Based on the open-sourceWebKit layout engine, coupled with Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine supporting HTML5 and CSS3.


Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero.


User can jump from one task to another and same time various application can run simultaneously.

Resizable widgets

Widgets are resizable, so users can expand them to show more content or shrink them to save space


Supports single direction and bi-directional text.


Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) is a service that lets developers send short message data to their users on Android devices, without needing a proprietary sync solution.

Wi-Fi Direct

A technology that lets apps discover and pair directly, over a high-bandwidth peer-to-peer connection.

Android Beam

A popular NFC-based technology that lets users instantly share, just by touching two NFC-enabled phones together.




Android Applications

Android applications are usually developed in the Java language using the Android Software Development Kit.

Once developed, Android applications can be packaged easily and sold out either through a store such as Google Play or the AmazonAppstore.

Android powers hundreds of millions of mobile devices in more than 190 countries around the world. It’s the largest installed base of any mobile platform and growing fast. Every day more than 1 million new Android devices are activated worldwide.

This tutorial has been written with an aim to teach you how to develop and package Android application. We will start from environment setup for Android application programming and then drill down to look into various aspects of Android applications.



PHP અથવા પીએચપી એ કોમ્પ્યુટરની સર્વર-સાઇડ સ્ક્રિપ્ટીંગ લેંગ્વેજ છે. જે ડાયનેમિક વેબ પેજીસ બનાવવા માટે વપરાય છે. પીએચપીની શોધ રેસમસ લર્ડોર્ફે ૧૯૯૫માં કરી હતી. પીએચપી એ PHP તથા GNU GPL પરવાના હેઠળનો મુફ્ત સોફ્ટવેર છે. પીએચપીનું પુરુ નામ શરૂઆતમાં પર્સનલ હોમ પેજ હતું, જે હવે હાયપરટેક્ષ્ટ પ્રીપ્રોસેસર છે. આ સ્ક્રિપ્ટીંગ લેંગ્વેજને HTML ની અંદર વણી શકાય છે. તેમાં કમાન્ડ લાઇન ઇન્ટરફેસની સવલતો પણ ઉપલબ્ધ છે અને તેનો ઉપયોગ સ્ટેન્ડઅલોન ગ્રાફીકલ એપ્લિકેશનમાં થાય છે. અત્યારે PHP ૨ કરોડ વેબસાઇટ અને ૧૦ લાખ વેબ સર્વર પર સ્થાપિત છે. 

Quick facts: પ્રોગ્રામિંગ પેરાડિગમ, શરૂઆત …

પ્રોગ્રામિંગ પેરાડિગમ રિફ્લેક્ટિવ,ઓબ્જેક્ટ ઓરીએન્ટેડ,સર્વસામાન્ય,કાર્યપ્રણાલી
શરૂઆત ૧૯૯૫
બનાવનાર રાસમસ લેરડૉર્ફ
ડેવલપર ધ PHP ગ્રૂપ
સ્થિર પ્રકાશન ૫.૪.૮
પ્રકાર નબળુંડાયનેમિક
પ્રોગ્રામીંગ ભાષાઓનું અમલીકરણ હિપહોપઝેન્ડ એન્જિન,પ્રોજેક્ટ ઝીરો,ફુલાનજર
દ્વારા પ્રભાવિત પર્લ,C++,જાવા,C
કોમ્પ્યુટીંગ પ્લેટફોર્મ ક્રોસ પ્લેટફોર્મ
લાયસન્સ PHP લાયસન્સ
સામાન્ય ફાઈલ એક્સટેન્શન .php ,.phtml, .php4 .php3, .php5, .phps

The php code is inside the <?php tag and does not required end tag i.e. ?> unless the php code is inside html tags

Anything outside of those tags would not be PHP and could be anything that you could normally write in an HTML file.

Make sure your files have the .php extension or else the server won’t process the code.


    echo "I am awesome!";

Output :

I am awesome!

Explanation :

The command echo is one of the ways PHP can output content. So, basically we used the opening <?php tag to indicate that were starting to use PHP code. Then, we echo a string “I am awesome!”. end the statement with ;


  • Visual Basic .NET(VB.NET) is a multi-paradigm, high level programming language, implemented on the.NET Framework.
  • Microsoft launched VB.NET in 2002 as the successor to its original Visual Basic language.
  • It is a programming environment used to create graphical user interface(GUI) applications for the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems.

Features of VB.net :

Inheritance :

Inheritance allows developers to extend an existing code base to add new functionality.

Type-safe :

Code can only access memory location it is allowed to access.vb.net require explicit type casting so that types are not automatically converted to other types.

Structured exception handling :

Create more efficient and robust error handlers by using structured exception handling, which allows you to detect and remove errors at runtime.

Delegates and events :

Event is a signal that informs an application that something important has occurred.
Delegates are objects that refer to methods. Delegates are useful in situations where you need an intermediary between a calling procedure and the procedure being called.

Attributes :

Tags are used to provide additional information about the elements defined in a Visual Basic .NET program.

Multithreading :

Enables your applications to handle multiple tasks simultaneously.


Swift is a new programming language for iOS,OS X, watchOS, and tvOS apps that builds on the best of C and Objective-C, without the constraints of C compatibility. Swift adopts safe programming patterns and adds modern features to make programming easier, more flexible, and more fun. Swift’s clean slate, backed by the mature and much-loved Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks, is an opportunity to reimagine how software development works.

Swift has been years in the making. Apple laid the foundation for Swift by advancing our existing compiler, debugger, and framework infrastructure. We simplified memory management with Automatic Reference Counting (ARC). Our framework stack, built on the solid base of Foundation and Cocoa, has been modernized and standardized throughout.

Swift feels familiar to Objective-C developers. It adopts the readability of Objective-C’s named parameters and the power of Objective-C’s dynamic object model. It provides seamless access to existing Cocoa frameworks and mix-and-match interoperability with Objective-C code. Building from this common ground, Swift introduces many new features and unifies the procedural and object-oriented portions of the language.

Swift is friendly to new programmers. It is thefirst industrial-quality systems programming language that is as expressive and enjoyableas a scripting language. It supportsplaygrounds, an innovative feature that allows programmers to experiment with Swift code and see the results immediately, without the overhead of building and running an app.

Swift combines the best in modern language thinking with wisdom from the wider Apple engineering culture. The compiler is optimizedfor performance, and the language is optimized for development, without compromising on either. It’s designed to scale from “hello, world” to an entire operating system. All this makes Swift a sound future investment for developers and for Apple.



Structured Query Language(SQL) is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). SQL consists of a data definition language(DDL), data manipulation language(DML), and a data control language(DCL).

SQL Syntax

  • SQL query consists of different clauses, expessions which together form a statement.
  • Insignificant whitespace is generally ignored in SQL statements and queries, making it easier to format SQL code for readability.
  • SQL is NOT case sensitive: select is the same as SELECT
  • SQL statements also include the semicolon (“;”) statement terminator. Though not required on every platform, it is defined as a standard part of the SQL grammar.


Consider the following table with the name:Employee

ID Name Desgn City Dept
101 Nigel Manager Hyderabad Operations
102 Yogesh Developer New York IT
103 Timir Marketing Lead London Marketing
104 Avinash Devloper Mumbai IT

We use the following SELECT statement if we want to fetch all the records from the table:

SELECT * FROM Employee;

Output :

ID Name Desgn City Dept
101 Nigel Manager Hyderabad Operations
102 Yogesh Developer New York IT
103 Timir Marketing Lead London Marketing
104 Avinash Devloper Mumbai IT

We use the following SELECT statement if we want to fetch specific records from the table:


Output :

ID Name
101 Nigel
102 Yogesh
103 Timir
104 Avinash


What is Ruby

Ruby is an object-oriented programming language. It was created in 1993 by Yukihiro Matsumoto of Japan. Ruby is a general-purpose, interpreted programming language like PERL and Python.

What is IRb

  • Interactive Ruby (IRb) serves as a shell for experimentation. Within the IRb shell, you can immediately view expression results, line by line.
  • This tool comes with Ruby installation, so no extra installations required to have IRb working. Just type irb at your command prompt and an Interactive Ruby Session will start.

Ruby Syntax

  • Whitespace characters such as spaces and tabs are generally ignored in Ruby code, except when they appear in strings.
  • Ruby interprets semicolons and newline characters as the end of a statement. However, if Ruby encounters operators, such as (+, -, or \) at the end of a line, they indicate the continuation of a statement.
  • Identifiers are names of variables, constants, and methods. Ruby identifiers are case-sensitive. Which mean “Computer” and “COMPUTER” are two different identifiers in Ruby.
  • Ruby comments start with a pound/sharp symbol (#) character and go to EOL.

General Syntax Rules

  • Comments start with a pound/sharp (#) character and go to EOL.Ruby programs are a sequence of expressions.
  • Each expression is delimited by semicolons(;) or newlines unless obviously incomplete (e.g. trailing ‘+’).
  • Backslashes at the end of line does not terminate expression.

Reserved Words in Ruby

BEGIN do next Then
END else nil TRUE
alias elsif not Undef
and end or Unless
begin ensure redo Until
break FALSE rescue when
case for retry while
class if return Def
in self __FILE__ defined?
module super __LINE__

Basic Data types

Basic types are numbers, strings, ranges, regexen, symbols, arrays, and hashes. Also included are files because they are used so often.


R is very good at plotting graphics, analyzing data, and fitting statistical models using data that fits in the computer’s memory. It’s not as good at storing data in complicated structures, efficiently querying data, or working with data that doesn’t fit in the computer’s memory.


You can find implementations for hundreds (maybe thousands) of statistical and data analysis algorithms in R. No commercial package offers anywhere near the scope of functionality available through the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).


There are now hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of R users worldwide. By using R, you can be sure that you’re using the same software that your colleagues are using.


R’s performance is comparable, or superior, to most commercial analysis packages. R requires you to load data sets into memory before processing. If you have enough memory to hold the data, R can run very quickly. Luckily, memory is cheap. You can buy 32 GB of server RAM for less than the cost of a single desktop license of a comparable piece of commercial statistical software.